Based on his discovery of the comet orchid and its need for a specialist pollinator, Darwin predicted the existence of a moth 40 years before it was discovered. 150 years later, Kettlewell carried out experiments exploring ‘evolution in action’ with relation to the peppered moth and the industrial revolution. Today the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in USA is developing cyborg moths to use for surveillance and military activity. The discovery of genes and DNA has opened up many previously hidden aspects of life. These formed the basis of the unnatural selection residency at Rea Garden, Birmingham, UK and subsequent work.